W WITHDRAWAL Physical, cognitive, and affective symptoms that occur after chronic use of a drug is reduced abruptly or stopped among individuals who have developed tolerance to a drug.

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T TAPERA practice in pharmacotherapy of lowering the dose of medication incrementally over time to help prevent or reduce any adverse experiences as the patients’ body makes adjustments and adapts to lower and lower doses. TOLERANCEA normal neurobiological adaptation process characterized by the brain’s attempt to accommodate abnormally high exposure to a drug. Tolerance results in

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S SCREENING, BRIEF INTERVENTION, AND REFERRAL TO TREATMENT (SBIRT)An evidence-based method used to detect, reduce, and prevent problematic substance use and substance use disorder. SCREENING –An assessment – usually brief such as a paper and pencil self-report measures or a biological assay (e.g., urine/blood) – to help detect risky or harmful substance use. This is

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R RECOVERYThe process of improved physical, psychological, and social well-being and health after having suffered from a substance use disorder. RECOVERY COACHTypically a non-clinical peer support specialist or “peer mentor” operating within a community organization (e.g., a Recovery Community Center) or a clinical organization (e.g., treatment program or hospital) and can therefore be a paid

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P PARTIAL HOSPITALIZATIONA time-limited, intensive, clinical service that is often medically monitored but is a step in intensity below inpatient hospitalization. A patient may participate in clinical services all day long for days to weeks but resides at home. Definitions of levels of care may vary by state. PEER SUPPORT GROUPAlso known as mutual help organizations, peer

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O OPIATEA drug derived directly from the natural opium poppy plant. OPIOIDA family of drugs used therapeutically to treat pain, that also produce a sensation of euphoria (a “high”) and are naturally derived from the opium poppy plant (e.g., morphine and opium) or synthetically or semi-synthetically produced in a lab to act like an opiate

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N NALOXONEAn opioid antagonist, similar to Naltrexone, that works by blocking opioid receptors in the brain, thereby blocking the effects of opioid agonists (e.g., heroin, morphine). Naloxone has poor bio-availability when taken sublingually. Naloxone has a high affinity to the mu opioid receptor, yet not as high of an affinity as buprenorphine at the mu receptor.

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M MANDATED TREATMENTTreatment required through a drug court or as a condition of pretrial release, probation, or parole. MARIJUANAThe leaves, flowers, stems and seeds of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa, containing the active ingredient of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) that can produce altered senses and perceptions of time, changes in mood and appetite, pain relief, impaired body movement, impaired

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L LAPSE(stigma alert) A non-technical term, also referred to as a “slip”. It implies a short-term resumption of substance use or heavy/hazardous use (e.g., for a night or a day) that is followed by a return to the original goal of moderate use or abstinence. This term has a stigma alert due to the term’s potentially moral

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I INHALANTSubstances that produce chemical vapors that are inhaled to induce a psychoactive or mind-altering effect. There are four general categories of inhalants — volatile solvents, aerosols, gases, and nitrites. IN-PATIENT TREATMENTAdmission to a hospital or facility for treatment that requires at least one overnight stay and typically requires medical management. (see residential treatment) INTEGRATED HEALTH CAREAn

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