The collaborative process of assessment, planning, care coordination, evaluation, and advocacy for options and services to facilitate disease management (e.g. connecting individuals to mutual help organizations, peer & family support services and counseling, employment, housing, basic healthcare, childcare, etc.).

(stigma alert) A reference to a state of a person being abstinent from drugs of misuse. It may also be used in describing urine test results that are not positive for substance use. The term has been viewed as potentially stigmatizing because of its pejorative connotation, with the opposite being “dirty.” Instead, many in the field advocate for use of proper medical terminology such as describing someone as an individual in remission or recovery and describing urine toxicology test results as either negative or positive.

A stimulant drug derived from the leaves of the coca plant, that activates the reward centers of the brain to produce sensations of extreme happiness and energy, increased mental alertness, hypersensitivity to sight, sound, and touch, irritability or anxiety, constricted blood vessels, dilated pupils, nausea, tremors and muscle twitches, rapid and/or irregular heartbeat, and increased blood pressure and body temperature. Also known as blow, coke, crack, rock, snow.
Long-term health consequences include: loss of sense of smell, extreme bowel decay, increased risk of HIV and Hepatitis.
Cocaine can be: inhaled (e.g. smoked, or vapors inhaled), snorted, or injected.


An analgesic opioid synthetically produced for the treatment of mild to moderate pain that works by activating the reward centers of the brain to provide pain relief. Side effects include headache, skin rash, constipation, changes in heart rate, hallucinations, loss of coordination, decreased sexual desire or irregular menstruation, and trouble breathing. Approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1950, Codeine is frequently combined with Tylenol or aspirin as a prescription pain medication.

  • Long-term health consequences include: dependency, addiction, insomnia, nightmares, liver damage, and seizures.
  • Codeine can be: ingested orally, injected, snorted

A prevalent type of talk therapy (psychotherapy) that involves working with a professional to increase awareness of inaccurate or negative thinking and behavior and to learn to implement new coping strategies.

Slang term for the abrupt and complete cessation in intake of an addictive substance. It stems from the appearance of goosebumps on the skin often observable in addicted individuals when physiologically withdrawing from a substance.
The Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) is a psychosocial cognitive-behavioral intervention for individuals with alcohol and other drug use disorders that has been adapted for several populations, including adolescents (the Adolescent-Community Reinforcement Approach; A-CRA) and family members of individuals resistant or reluctant to enter treatment (Community Reinforcement and Family Training; CRAFT).

Ongoing care of patients suffering from chronic incapacitating illness or disease. Understanding substance use disorder to be a chronic illness, it requires continuing care and ongoing recovery management rather than acute care or treatment delivered in isolated episodes.

A dollar amount that an insured patient is expected to pay at the time of service.

The specific efforts, both behavioral & psychological, utilized to master, tolerate, reduce, or minimize the effects of stressful events.

Two general coping strategies have been distinguished as:

  1. problem solving strategies (active efforts to alleviate stressful circumstances)
  2. emotion focused strategies to regulate the emotional consequences of stressful or potentially stressful events.
    The specific efforts, both behavioral & psychological, utilized to master, tolerate, reduce, or minimize the effects of stressful events.

A powerful & strong psychological desire to consume a substance or engage in an activity; a symptom of the abnormal brain adaptions (neuroadaptations) that result from addiction. The brain becomes accustomed to the presence of a substance, which when absent, produces a manifest psychological desire to obtain and consume it.

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