A potent opioid synthetically produced in laboratories, that activates the reward centers of the brain to produce sensations of euphoria and provide pain relief. Side effects have included alterations in consciousness, sensations of heaviness, decreases in mental function, constipation, anxiety, changes in mood and appetite, nausea, dry mouth, intense itching, constricted pupils, and increased body temperature. Fentanyl is 50 to 100 times more potent than morphine, and is available in legal prescription form, and increasingly, in illegal illicit forms. Also known as Apache, China Girl, or Jackpot.

Long-term health consequences (most often through injection use) include: insomnia, infection of the heart lining and valves, collapsed veins, loss of sense of smell, abscesses, constipation, liver or kidney disease, pneumonia, sexual dysfunction (men), irregular menstrual cycles (women), increased risk of HIV and Hepatitis, coma or death.

Fentanyl can be:

  • In prescription form: injected, worn as a transdermal patch, or ingested through lozenges
  • In non-prescription illicit form: ingested (eaten), snorted, injected

An irreversible syndrome inherited by children exposed to alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy. This syndrome is characterized by physical and mental birth defects. This is currently more commonly referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

1 year without substance use disorder symptoms (except craving).

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